STUDIES

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You will find here a sample of the existing scientific literature about Flame Retardants’ Environmental, Health and Fire Toxicity effects. Please note that the following sample does not constitute an exhaustive list.

Studies on Environmental Effects of Flame Retardants

  • Occurrence, bioaccumulation, fate, and risk assessment of novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) in aquatic environments – A critical review – Water Res. 2021 – Rui Hou, Lang Lin, Hengxiang Li, Shan Liu, Xiangrong Xu, Yiping Xu, Xiaowei Jin, Yong Yuan, Zijian Wang.

  • Uptake and translocation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the rhizosphere soil-crop-atmosphere system in e-waste dismantling areas in Taizhou, China – Chemosphere 2021 – Wenming Chen, Chen Liu, Baokai Wei, Junsong Bao, Ying Wang, Jicheng Hu, Jun Jin, Fangang Zeng.

  • Polyethylene mesh knitted fabrics mulching the soil to mitigate China’s haze: A potential source of PBDEs – Chemosphere 2021 – Ying Wang, Jin Tan, Rong Li, Zi-Tao Jiang, Shu-Hua Tang, Liang Wang, Ruo-Chen Liu.

  • Ecotoxico Linking of Phthalates and Flame-Retardant Combustion Byproducts with Coral Solar Bleaching – Environ Sci

  • Technol. 2021 – Ali Ranjbar Jafarabadi, Sakineh Mashjoor, Alireza Riyahi Bakhtiari, Tiziana Cappello

  • Establishment of a Target, Suspect, and Functional Group-Dependent Screening Strategy for Organophosphate Esters (OPEs): “Into the Unknown” of OPEs in the Sediment of Taihu Lake, China – Environ Sci Technol. 2021 – Langjie Ye, Weikun Meng, Jianan Huang, Jianhua Li, Guanyong Su.

  • Organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) in the seawater and sediments of the Qinzhou Bay, Northern Beibu Gulf: Occurrence, distribution, and ecological risks – Mar Pollut Bull. 2021 – Li Zhang, Lu Lu, Wenjuan Zhu, Bin Yang, Dongliang Lu, Solomon Felix Dan, Shaofeng Zhang.

  • Spatio-temporal variations and input patterns on the legacy and novel brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in coastal rivers of North China – Environ Pollut. 2021 – Lin Liu, Xiaomei Zhen, Xinming Wang, Daochang Zhang, Linting Sun, Jianhui Tang.

  • Accumulation and influencing factors of novel brominated -flame retardants in soil and vegetation from Fildes Peninsula, Antarctica – Sci Total Environ 2020 – Siyuan Xiong, Yanfen Hao, Yingming Li, Ruiqiang Yang, Zhiguo Pei, Qinghua Zhang, Guibin Jiang.

  • Assessment of organophosphate flame retardants in Mediterranean Boops boops and their relationship to anthropization levels and microplastic ingestion – Chemosphere 2020 – Garcia-Garin O., Vighi M., Sala B., Aguilar A., Tsangaris C., Digka N., Kaberi H., Eljarrat E., Borrell A.

  • Adélie penguin colonies as indicators of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in East Antarctica – Chemosphere 2020 – Lewis PJ, McGrath TJ, Emmerson L, Allinson G, Shimeta J.

  • Glacial Melt Inputs of Organophosphate Ester Flame Retardants to the Largest High Arctic Lake – Environ Sci Technol. 2020 – Sun Y, De Silva AO, St Pierre KA, Muir DCG, Spencer C, Lehnherr I, MacInnis JJ.

  • Levels and distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in humans and environmental compartments: a comprehensive review of the last five years of research – Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2020 – Klinčić D, Dvoršćak M, Jagić K, Mendaš G, Herceg Romanić S.

  • Landfills represent significant atmospheric sources of exposure to halogenated flame retardants for urban-adapted gulls – Environ Int. 2020 – Sorais M, Mazerolle MJ, Giroux JF, Verreault J.

  • Assessment of the effects of early life exposure to triphenyl phosphate on fear, boldness, aggression, and activity in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) chicks – Environ Pollut. 2019 – Hanas AK, Guigueno MF, Fernie KJ, Letcher RJ, Ste-Marie Chamberland F, Head JA.

  • Sex-specific effects of perinatal FireMaster® 550 (FM 550) exposure on socioemotional behavior in prairie voles – Neurotoxicology and Teratology 2019 – Sagi Enicole A.Gillera, William P. Marinello, Brian M.Horman, Allison L.Phillips, Matthew T. Ruis, Heather M. Stapleton, David M. Reif, Heather B. Patisaul.

  • Urban Stormwater: An Overlooked Pathway of Extensive Mixed Contaminants to Surface and Groundwaters in the United States – Environ. Sci. Technol. 2019 – Jason R. Masoner, Dana W. Kolpin, Isabelle M. Cozzarelli, Larry B. Barber, David S. Burden, William T. Foreman, Kenneth J. Forshay, Edward T. Furlong, Justin F. Groves, Michelle L. Hladik, Matthew E. Hopton, Jeanne B. Jaeschke, Steffanie H. Keefe, David P. Krabbenhoft, Richard Lowrance, Kristin M. Romanok, David L. Rus, William R. Selbig, Brianna H. Williams, Paul M. Bradley.

  • Risks of Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) for Sustainable Water Recycling via Aquifers – Water 2019 – Declan Page, Joanne Vanderzalm, Anupama Kumar, Ka Yu Cheng, Anna H. Kaksonen, Stuart Simpson.

  • Silicone Pet Tags Associate Tris (1,3-dichloro-2-isopropyl) Phosphate Exposures with Feline Hyperthyroidism – Environ. Sci. Technol. 2019 – Carolyn M. Poutasse, Julie B. Herbstman, Mark E. Peterson, Jana Gordon, Peter H. Soboroff, Darrell Holmes, Dezere Gonzalez, Lane G. Tidwell, Kim A. Anderson.

  • Polyurethane heat preservation materials: The significant sources of organophosphorus flame retardants – Chemosphere 2019 – Wang Y, Yang Y, Zhang Y, Tan F, Li Q, Zhao H, Xie Q, Chen J.

  • Occurrence, bioaccumulation, fate, and risk assessment of novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) in aquatic environments – A critical review – Water Res. 2021 – Rui Hou, Lang Lin, Hengxiang Li, Shan Liu, Xiangrong Xu, Yiping Xu, Xiaowei Jin, Yong Yuan, Zijian Wang.

  • Uptake and translocation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the rhizosphere soil-crop-atmosphere system in e-waste dismantling areas in Taizhou, China – Chemosphere 2021 – Wenming Chen, Chen Liu, Baokai Wei, Junsong Bao, Ying Wang, Jicheng Hu, Jun Jin, Fangang Zeng.

  • Polyethylene mesh knitted fabrics mulching the soil to mitigate China’s haze: A potential source of PBDEs – Chemosphere 2021 – Ying Wang, Jin Tan, Rong Li, Zi-Tao Jiang, Shu-Hua Tang, Liang Wang, Ruo-Chen Liu.

  • Ecotoxico Linking of Phthalates and Flame-Retardant Combustion Byproducts with Coral Solar Bleaching – Environ Sci

  • Technol. 2021 – Ali Ranjbar Jafarabadi, Sakineh Mashjoor, Alireza Riyahi Bakhtiari, Tiziana Cappello

  • Establishment of a Target, Suspect, and Functional Group-Dependent Screening Strategy for Organophosphate Esters (OPEs): “Into the Unknown” of OPEs in the Sediment of Taihu Lake, China – Environ Sci Technol. 2021 – Langjie Ye, Weikun Meng, Jianan Huang, Jianhua Li, Guanyong Su.

  • Organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) in the seawater and sediments of the Qinzhou Bay, Northern Beibu Gulf: Occurrence, distribution, and ecological risks – Mar Pollut Bull. 2021 – Li Zhang, Lu Lu, Wenjuan Zhu, Bin Yang, Dongliang Lu, Solomon Felix Dan, Shaofeng Zhang.

  • Spatio-temporal variations and input patterns on the legacy and novel brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in coastal rivers of North China – Environ Pollut. 2021 – Lin Liu, Xiaomei Zhen, Xinming Wang, Daochang Zhang, Linting Sun, Jianhui Tang.

  • Accumulation and influencing factors of novel brominated -flame retardants in soil and vegetation from Fildes Peninsula, Antarctica – Sci Total Environ 2020 – Siyuan Xiong, Yanfen Hao, Yingming Li, Ruiqiang Yang, Zhiguo Pei, Qinghua Zhang, Guibin Jiang.

  • Assessment of organophosphate flame retardants in Mediterranean Boops boops and their relationship to anthropization levels and microplastic ingestion – Chemosphere 2020 – Garcia-Garin O., Vighi M., Sala B., Aguilar A., Tsangaris C., Digka N., Kaberi H., Eljarrat E., Borrell A.

  • Adélie penguin colonies as indicators of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in East Antarctica – Chemosphere 2020 – Lewis PJ, McGrath TJ, Emmerson L, Allinson G, Shimeta J.

  • Glacial Melt Inputs of Organophosphate Ester Flame Retardants to the Largest High Arctic Lake – Environ Sci Technol. 2020 – Sun Y, De Silva AO, St Pierre KA, Muir DCG, Spencer C, Lehnherr I, MacInnis JJ.

  • Levels and distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in humans and environmental compartments: a comprehensive review of the last five years of research – Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2020 – Klinčić D, Dvoršćak M, Jagić K, Mendaš G, Herceg Romanić S.

  • Landfills represent significant atmospheric sources of exposure to halogenated flame retardants for urban-adapted gulls – Environ Int. 2020 – Sorais M, Mazerolle MJ, Giroux JF, Verreault J.

  • Assessment of the effects of early life exposure to triphenyl phosphate on fear, boldness, aggression, and activity in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) chicks – Environ Pollut. 2019 – Hanas AK, Guigueno MF, Fernie KJ, Letcher RJ, Ste-Marie Chamberland F, Head JA.

  • Sex-specific effects of perinatal FireMaster® 550 (FM 550) exposure on socioemotional behavior in prairie voles – Neurotoxicology and Teratology 2019 – Sagi Enicole A.Gillera, William P. Marinello, Brian M.Horman, Allison L.Phillips, Matthew T. Ruis, Heather M. Stapleton, David M. Reif, Heather B. Patisaul.

  • Urban Stormwater: An Overlooked Pathway of Extensive Mixed Contaminants to Surface and Groundwaters in the United States – Environ. Sci. Technol. 2019 – Jason R. Masoner, Dana W. Kolpin, Isabelle M. Cozzarelli, Larry B. Barber, David S. Burden, William T. Foreman, Kenneth J. Forshay, Edward T. Furlong, Justin F. Groves, Michelle L. Hladik, Matthew E. Hopton, Jeanne B. Jaeschke, Steffanie H. Keefe, David P. Krabbenhoft, Richard Lowrance, Kristin M. Romanok, David L. Rus, William R. Selbig, Brianna H. Williams, Paul M. Bradley.

  • Risks of Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) for Sustainable Water Recycling via Aquifers – Water 2019 – Declan Page, Joanne Vanderzalm, Anupama Kumar, Ka Yu Cheng, Anna H. Kaksonen, Stuart Simpson.

  • Silicone Pet Tags Associate Tris (1,3-dichloro-2-isopropyl) Phosphate Exposures with Feline Hyperthyroidism – Environ. Sci. Technol. 2019 – Carolyn M. Poutasse, Julie B. Herbstman, Mark E. Peterson, Jana Gordon, Peter H. Soboroff, Darrell Holmes, Dezere Gonzalez, Lane G. Tidwell, Kim A. Anderson.

  • Polyurethane heat preservation materials: The significant sources of organophosphorus flame retardants – Chemosphere 2019 – Wang Y, Yang Y, Zhang Y, Tan F, Li Q, Zhao H, Xie Q, Chen J.

  • Effects of tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) on sex-dependent alterations of thyroid hormones in adult zebrafish – Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2019 – Liu X, Cai Y, Wang Y, Xu S, Ji K, Choi K.

  • First determination of high levels of organophosphorus flame retardants and plasticizers in dolphins from Southern European waters – Environ Res. 2019 – Sala B, Giménez J, de Stephanis R, Barceló D, Eljarrat E.

  • Legacy and emerging flame retardants (FRs) in the freshwater ecosystem: A review – Environmental Research 2017 – Mehreen Iqbal, Jabir Hussain Syed, Athanasios Katsoyiannis, Riffat Naseem Malik, Abida Farooqi, Ayesha Butt,  Jun Li, Gan Zhang, Alessandra Cincinelli, Kevin C. Jones.

  • Occurrence of contaminants of emerging concern along the California coast (2009-10) using passive sampling devices. Marine pollution bulletin 2013 – Alvarez, D. A., Maruya, K. A., Dodder, N. G., Lao, W., Furlong, E. T., & Smalling, K. L.

  • Occurrence of hydrophobic organic pollutants (BFRs and UV-filters) in sediments from South America. Chemosphere 2013 – Barón, E., Gago-Ferrero, P., Gorga, M., Rudolph, I., Mendoza, G., Zapata, A. M., Díaz-Cruz, S., et al.

  • In vitro biotransformation of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) and Dechlorane Plus flame retardants: a case study of ring-billed gull breeding in a pollution hotspot in the St. Lawrence River, Canada. Environment international 2013 – Chabot-Giguère, B., Letcher, R. J., & Verreault, J.

  • High prevalence of infections and pathological changes in burbot (Lota lota) from a polluted lake (Lake Mjøsa, Norway). Chemosphere 2013 – Berg, V., Zerihun, M. A., Jørgensen, A., Lie, E., Dale, O. B., Skaare, J. U., & Lyche, J. L.

  • Study of the toxic effects of flame retardant PBDE-47 on the clam Chamelea gallina (Linnaeus, 1758). Veterinaria italiana 2013 – Angioni, S. A., Scortichini, G., Diletti, G., Perletta, F., Ceci, R., & Ferri, N. (n.d.).

  • Toxicokinetics of polybrominated diphenyl ethers across life stages in the northern leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens). Environmental toxicology and chemistry 2013 – Cary, T. L., & Karasov, W. H.

  • PBDE flame retardants and PCBs in migrating Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada – Chemosphere 2012 – Alava, J. J., Lambourn, D., Olesiuk, P., Lance, M., Jeffries, S. J., Gobas, F. A. P. C., & Ross, P. S.

  • Natural and anthropogenically-produced brominated compounds in endemic dolphins from Western South Atlantic: another risk to a vulnerable species. Environmental pollution 2012 – Alonso, M. B., Eljarrat, E., Gorga, M., Secchi, E. R., Bassoi, M., Barbosa, L., Bertozzi, C. P., et al.

  • Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the indoor and outdoor environments–a review on occurrence and human exposure. Environmental pollution 2012 – Besis, A., & Samara, C.

  • Levels and distributions of organophosphate flame retardants and plasticizers in sediment from Taihu Lake, China. Environmental toxicology and chemistry 2012 – Cao, S., Zeng, X., Song, H., Li, H., Yu, Z., Sheng, G., & Fu, J.

  • Disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in zebrafish embryo-larvae following waterborne exposure to BDE-47, TBBPA and BPA. Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 108, 106–11. doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2011.10.013 2012 – Chan, W. K., & Chan, K. M.

  • Pollutant dehalogenation capability may depend on the trophic evolutionary history of the organism: PBDEs in freshwater food webs. PLoS One 2012 – Bartrons, M., Grimalt, J. O., De Mendoza, G., & Catalan, J.

  • Are reductions in industrial organic contaminants emissions in rich countries achieved partly by export of toxic wastes? Environmental science & technology 2011 – Breivik, K., Gioia, R., Chakraborty, P., Zhang, G., & Jones, K. C.

  • Bioaccumulation of dioxin-like substances and selected brominated flame retardant congeners in the fat and livers of black pigs farmed within the Nebrodi Regional Park of Sicily. Journal of food protection, doi:10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-10-176 2011 – Brambilla, G., De Filippis, S. P., Iamiceli, A. L., Iacovella, N., Abate, V., Aronica, V., Di Marco, V., et al.

  • Screening of organic contaminants in urban snow. Water science and technology  2011- Björklund, K., Strömvall, A.-M., & Malmqvist, P.-A.

  • Environmental pollutants in the Swedish marine ecosystem, with special emphasis on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE). Chemosphere, 82(9), 1286–92. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.12.029 2011 – Carlsson, P., Herzke, D., Wedborg, M., & Gabrielsen, G. W.

  • Health effects of persistent organic pollutants: the challenge for the Pacific Basin and for the world. Reviews on environmental health 2011 – Carpenter, D. O.

  • Disease susceptibility of salmon exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Aquatic toxicology 2010 – Arkoosh, M. R., Boylen, D., Dietrich, J., Anulacion, B. F., Ginaylitalo, Bravo, C. F., Johnson, L. L., et al.

  • Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, toxaphenes, and other halogenated organic pollutants in great blue heron eggs. Environmental toxicology and chemistry doi:10.1002/etc.37 2010 – Champoux, L., Moisey, J., & Muir, D. C. G.

  • Determination of brominated flame retardants and brominated dioxins in fish collected from three regions of Japan. Molecular nutrition & food research 2008 – Ashizuka, Y., Nakagawa, R., Hori, T., Yasutake, D., Tobiishi, K., & Sasaki, K.

  • Screening chemicals for the potential to be persistent organic pollutants: a case study of Arctic contaminants. Environmental science & technology 2008 – Brown, T. N., & Wania, F.

  • Investigations of the potential influence of environmental contaminants on the thymus and spleen of harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena). Environmental science & technology 2005 – Beineke, A., Siebert, U., McLachlan, M., Bruhn, R., Thron, K., Failing, K., Müller, G., et al.

  • Brominated flame retardants: cause for concern? Environmental health perspectives2004 – Birnbaum, L. S., & Staskal, D. F. 

  • An overview of commercially used brominated flame retardants, their applications, their use patterns in different countries/regions and possible modes of release – Environment International 2003 – Alaee M.

  • Containment landfills: the myth of sustainability – Engineering Geology 2001 – Allen, A.

  • A global review of polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardant contamination in birds. Environment international, doi:10.1016/j.envint.2010.05.013 2010 – Chen, D., & Hale, R. C.

  • Species-specific accumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in birds of prey from the Chesapeake Bay region, USA. Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), 158(5), 1883–9. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2009.10.042 2010 – Chen, D., Hale, R. C., Watts, B. D., La Guardia, M. J., Harvey, E., & Mojica, E. K.

  • Natural and anthropogenically-produced brominated compounds in endemic dolphins from Western South Atlantic: another risk to a vulnerable species. Environmental pollution 2012 – Alonso, M. B., Eljarrat, E., Gorga, M., Secchi, E. R., Bassoi, M., Barbosa, L., Bertozzi, C. P., et al.

  • Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the indoor and outdoor environments–a review on occurrence and human exposure. Environmental pollution 2012 – Besis, A., & Samara, C.

  • Levels and distributions of organophosphate flame retardants and plasticizers in sediment from Taihu Lake, China. Environmental toxicology and chemistry 2012 – Cao, S., Zeng, X., Song, H., Li, H., Yu, Z., Sheng, G., & Fu, J.

  • Disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in zebrafish embryo-larvae following waterborne exposure to BDE-47, TBBPA and BPA. Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 108, 106–11. doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2011.10.013 2012 – Chan, W. K., & Chan, K. M.

  • Pollutant dehalogenation capability may depend on the trophic evolutionary history of the organism: PBDEs in freshwater food webs. PLoS One 2012 – Bartrons, M., Grimalt, J. O., De Mendoza, G., & Catalan, J.

  • Are reductions in industrial organic contaminants emissions in rich countries achieved partly by export of toxic wastes? Environmental science & technology 2011 – Breivik, K., Gioia, R., Chakraborty, P., Zhang, G., & Jones, K. C.

  • Bioaccumulation of dioxin-like substances and selected brominated flame retardant congeners in the fat and livers of black pigs farmed within the Nebrodi Regional Park of Sicily. Journal of food protection, doi:10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-10-176 2011 – Brambilla, G., De Filippis, S. P., Iamiceli, A. L., Iacovella, N., Abate, V., Aronica, V., Di Marco, V., et al.

  • Screening of organic contaminants in urban snow. Water science and technology  2011- Björklund, K., Strömvall, A.-M., & Malmqvist, P.-A.

  • Environmental pollutants in the Swedish marine ecosystem, with special emphasis on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE). Chemosphere, 82(9), 1286–92. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.12.029 2011 – Carlsson, P., Herzke, D., Wedborg, M., & Gabrielsen, G. W.

  • Health effects of persistent organic pollutants: the challenge for the Pacific Basin and for the world. Reviews on environmental health 2011 – Carpenter, D. O.

  • Disease susceptibility of salmon exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Aquatic toxicology 2010 – Arkoosh, M. R., Boylen, D., Dietrich, J., Anulacion, B. F., Ginaylitalo, Bravo, C. F., Johnson, L. L., et al.

  • Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, toxaphenes, and other halogenated organic pollutants in great blue heron eggs. Environmental toxicology and chemistry doi:10.1002/etc.37 2010 – Champoux, L., Moisey, J., & Muir, D. C. G.

  • Determination of brominated flame retardants and brominated dioxins in fish collected from three regions of Japan. Molecular nutrition & food research 2008 – Ashizuka, Y., Nakagawa, R., Hori, T., Yasutake, D., Tobiishi, K., & Sasaki, K.

  • Screening chemicals for the potential to be persistent organic pollutants: a case study of Arctic contaminants. Environmental science & technology 2008 – Brown, T. N., & Wania, F.

  • Investigations of the potential influence of environmental contaminants on the thymus and spleen of harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena). Environmental science & technology 2005 – Beineke, A., Siebert, U., McLachlan, M., Bruhn, R., Thron, K., Failing, K., Müller, G., et al.

  • Brominated flame retardants: cause for concern? Environmental health perspectives2004 – Birnbaum, L. S., & Staskal, D. F. 

  • An overview of commercially used brominated flame retardants, their applications, their use patterns in different countries/regions and possible modes of release – Environment International 2003 – Alaee M.

  • Containment landfills: the myth of sustainability – Engineering Geology 2001 – Allen, A.

  • A global review of polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardant contamination in birds. Environment international, doi:10.1016/j.envint.2010.05.013 2010 – Chen, D., & Hale, R. C.

  • Species-specific accumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in birds of prey from the Chesapeake Bay region, USA. Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), 158(5), 1883–9. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2009.10.042 2010 – Chen, D., Hale, R. C., Watts, B. D., La Guardia, M. J., Harvey, E., & Mojica, E. K.